Regulation of Private Military Contractors in Australia


This project entails a comprehensive analysis of Australian law on the regulation of private military and security companies (PMSCs). This includes law relevant to companies contracted by the Australian Defence Force while serving aboard or security contractors to other Australian Government agencies working overseas, as well as PMSCs operating out of Australia. The aim of the project is to make policy recommendations for the enhancement of the legal regime governing PMSCs.


  • Dr Rain Liivoja, Chief Investigator
  • Prof Tim McCormack, Chief Investigator
  • Mr James Ellis, Research Assistant


This research was supported under Melbourne Research Office’s Research Collaboration Grants funding scheme (2011-2013).


Tim McCormack and Rain Liivoja, ‘Australia: Regulating Private Military and Security Companies’ in Christine Bakker and Mirko Sossai (eds), Multilevel Regulation of Military and Security Outsourcing: The Interplay between International Norms, European Law and Domestic Legislation (Hart Publishing, 2012) 507–526

Rain Liivoja, ‘Review Essay—Regulating the Private Military and Security Industry: A Quest to Maintain State Control and Preserve Public Values’, 25 Leiden Journal of International Law (2012) 1019–1028

Nelleke van Amstel and Rain Liivoja, ‘Private Military and Security Companies’ in Rain Liivoja and Tim McCormack (eds), Routledge Handbook on the Law of Armed Conflict (Routledge, forthcoming)

Rain Liivoja, ‘Trying Civilian Contractors in Military Courts: A Necessary Evil?’ in Alison Duxbury and Matthew Groves (eds), Military Justice in the Modern Age (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming)


Rain Liivoja, ‘Overview of Australian Regulation of Private Military and Security Companies’, Pacific Regional Roundtable on the Montreux Document on Private Military and Security Companies (International Committee of the Red Cross, Australian Government, Swiss Government, Canberra, 8–9 May 2012)

Rain Liivoja, ‘Subjecting Civilians to Military Justice: A Necessary Evil?’, Military Justice in the Modern Age (Asia Pacific Centre for Military Law, Melbourne Law School, Melbourne, 4–5 November 2011)

Rain Liivoja, ‘Civilians under Military Jurisdiction’, Conference on Military Jurisdiction (International Society for Military Law and the Law of War, Rhodes, Greece, 28 September–2 October 2011)

The Asia-Pacific Centre for Military Law is operated by the University of Melbourne and it is not an agent of, nor affiliated with, or part of, the Australian Government or the Department of Defence.